According to The Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration (AFTD), Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) refers to a progressive disease process which causes a group of brain disorders. These disorders result in cell damage to specific areas of the brain – the frontal lobes and/or the temporal lobes. The atrophy of these nerve cells interferes with brain activity and causes a loss of function in these regions of the brain.
Frontotemporal Dementia is different from other types of dementia in two important ways:
- The trademark of FTD is a gradual, progressive decline in behavior and language with memory usually remaining intact. As FTD progresses it gets more difficult for the person to plan or organize activities, interact with others appropriately, and care for themselves.
- In the majority of cases, FTD occurs earlier in life in people between the ages of 45 to 65, although it has been seen in people as young as 21 and as old as 80.
Frontotemporal Dementia is often misdiagnosed as a psychiatric problem or a movement disorder, such as Parkinson’s Disease. This is because certain symptoms of FTD mimic other diseases and in other cases, individuals are considered “too young” to have dementia. According to AFTD, Alzheimer’s Disease is another possible misdiagnosis; however, the largest difference is that FTD affects language and behavior, while AD affects memory.
FTD makes up about 10%-20% of all dementia cases and the course of FTD ranges from 2 to over 20 years. The average length is about 8 years from the beginning of symptoms. It affects both men and women and, in some cases, can be inherited.
According to HealthLine.com, symptoms of FTD differ depending on the area of the brain affected, but most symptoms fall under behavior or language.
Common Frontotemporal Dementia behavioral issues include:
- Loss of empathy
- Inappropriate actions
- Compulsive behavior
- Lack of inhibition or restraint
- Neglect of personal hygiene and care
Common Frontotemporal Dementia language-related symptoms include:
- Difficulty speaking or understanding words
- Problems recalling language
- Loss of reading and writing skills
- Difficulty with social interactions
Cognitive and Emotional symptoms of FTD include:
- Difficulty planning, organizing, and/or executing activities
- Becoming less involved in daily routines
- Abrupt mood changes
- Emotional withdrawal
- Becoming distracted
- Reduced initiative
- A difference in gait, such as walking with a shuffle
- Muscle weakness, or cramps
- Apraxia (Loss of ability to make motions which are usually common and easy, such as using utensils)
Proper diagnosis is crucial because some medications used to treat other types of dementia may be harmful to a person with FTD. Unfortunately, AFTD reports no cures at this time. However, research is ongoing and rapidly increasing, and new drugs are beginning to be clinically tested.
Most importantly, remember that those dealing with any form of dementia are not doing these things on purpose. When providing care, caregivers sometimes trigger behaviors without realizing it. By understanding more about the many different types of dementia, caregivers can begin to improve quality and enjoyment of life at whatever stage of dementia a person happens to be in.
AFTD helpline: 866-507-7222
Learn about different types of dementia in our other blog posts!
Aspen Senior Care provides in-home care for seniors with all types of health challenges, including all forms of dementia.
Aspen Senior Day Center in Provo provides adult day care services (fun activities and personal care) for seniors with all types of dementia.
Contact Karen Rodgers, Family Caregiver Coach, for a free assessment to help you navigate the challenges of caregiving. You can reach her at 801-224-5910.
Visit aspenseniorcare.com or call our office at 801-224-5910 for more information.